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The American Imperial Grand Strategy

 

Dr. Ahmed El-Meadawy

9 April 2008

 

Imperialism, Oil and the Middle East:

 

      The Europeans have learnt from the destructive imperialist wars between their nations, which have ended with the World War II, to divide the world’s colonies among themselves according to their relative strengths, and with the co-operation with the United States of America, the new imperialist world leader. France was humiliated by the easy and fast German victory of the World War II. The French could not liberate their land without the British and American alliance. Then, the Charles De Gaulle government came and killed one million Algerians who wanted the same freedom the French wanted and got by luck. The French (with the British) invaded Egypt in 1956 to stop its support for the Algerian liberation movement, and helped Israel to invade Sinai. The colonized nations of Africa and Asia have defeated the European colonial powers with the help of the former Soviet Union and became free. The Europeans were much smarter than their victims. They left local client regimes to rule their nations on behalf of the defeated European masters and their new imperial leader, the USA. The most successful policy has ever been divide and rule. They divided the Arab land into smaller countries with local client rulers, created the state of Israel, and planted the seeds of continuous wars in the Middle East. This has exhausted the Arabs’ resources, who became the weakest victims of Imperialism in the whole World. The Arabs have failed to use the strongest strategic card they have (the oil), in addition to the Suez Canal, the strategic geographical location, and the large population of approximately 300 million, to develop and to stop and remove the Israeli cancer from the Arab body. Their armies are disarmed and used only to suppress the local populations.

 

      The Middle East is the most important source of petrol in the modern time for the Human civilization and the industrialized nations. It has been, since the end of the World War II, under the American control, as the USA has replaced Britain as the leader of the Imperialist (western free) world. This control has guaranteed the free flow of cheap oil to the industrialized nations during the Cold War years (1945-1990) without any political concessions to the Arabs in their struggle against the Zionist imperialism. The occupying American and allied forces in Iraq and the United Arab Emirates are ready to defend (occupy) the Arab oil wells in case of any threat to the uninterrupted flow of the oil to the USA and its allies. The American consumption of imported oil will increase from 10 million barrels a day (53% of the local consumption) in 2001 to 17 million barrels daily (65% of local consumption) in 2010. The most significant oil exporters to the USA are Canada (the largest exporter), Saudi Arabia (second largest), and Venezuela (third). The current Bush administration has failed to overthrow the current hostile president of Venezuela (Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías). The existing oil resources will not fulfill the American demand in the future. New resources are needed such as the occupied Iraq and the Caspian See oil reserves in Azerbaijan and. Kazakhstan. The invasion of Afghanistan has secured a land pipe line to transport the Caspian See oil. Iraq currently provides only 4% of the imported American oil, but it has the third largest oil reserves in the World. The Persian Golf has provided the States with 20% of its total oil imports, which was 12% of the local demand for the year 2003.

 

The Only Super Power:

 

      The United States has succeeded in destroying the former Soviet Union in 1991 by pushing the arms race to its maximum and pumping billions of dollars into the (American) military industry which led the Soviets to do the same to maintain a strategic balance with NATO. The weak Soviet economy could not keep up with the military and local population needs, so it disintegrated, leaving the USA to be the sole remaining superpower at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. Although the Soviet Union was not an Engel empire, it left many victims of Imperialism including the Arabs without any alliances to protect themselves. The Arabs are currently powerless against the Zionist, American, and European imperialist plans to swallow more of their lands and resources. This is happening with a complete collaboration of the ruling client regimes in the Middle East, the seeds that the old European masters have planted decades earlier.

 

      Before the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Americans have succeeded in destroying several obstacles to their complete Domination of the World. Those were the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Arab Nationalist Movement under Nasser’s leadership, who ended 75 years of British occupation of Egypt (1882-1956), and was one of the most important NAM leaders. The purpose of that organization was to protect the sovereignty and security of its 188 members (2007) from imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony, and great power and block politics. The Arab defeat by the Israelis, supported by all American/European Imperialist powers, in 1967 destroyed the Arab Nationalism. Its purpose was independence and unity of the Arabs and protecting their own interests against that of the American, European, and Zionist Imperialism. Sadat, Egypt’s president from 1970 to 1981 and the founder of the modern Egyptian client regime, played a decisive role in disarming the Arabs against the Israeli continuous militarization and highly developed nuclear arsenal. He and his family received in return financial rewards from his American and European masters. Another NAM leader, President Sukarno of Indonesia (1945-1967) was overthrown by another American agent, President Suharto, who killed 500,000-1,000,000 of the Indonesian people in support of the American policies in South East Asia. The fall of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, another important American agent in the Middle East, by the Iranian Revolution in 1979 increased the importance of the imperial American alliance with Turkey, Israel, and the Arab client regimes for the American control of the Middle East and its vast oil reserves.

 

Death of the Only Super Power:

 

      The size of the American economy has decreased from half of the world’s total economy in the fifties of the past century to 20-25% currently. The European and Japanese economies and currencies are improving continuously at the expense of that of the Americans. The Chinese economy is growing by 10% (approximately) yearly, and is expected to replace the American economy as the World largest within the next 20 years. Although Russia suffers from political, economical, and social chaos, it is still a nuclear super power capable of the complete annihilation of the USA and the whole World. Its vast oil and gas reserves increases the Russian influence on the European countries, as they increasingly depend on Russian energy supplies. China owns a nuclear deterrent and spends on the modernization of its military and nuclear arsenal as its economy grows. India is a nuclear power and a future economical super power. South East Asia’s economies are growing continuously and expanding their share of the World’s economy. The military spending of all those countries increases with their economical growth. Future alliances between those powers against the USA are possible. The USA fears a potential future alliance between Russia, China, and Iran. It is expected that the USA is not going to be able to keep its position as the World’s largest economy for more than a few decades to come, and probably its military superiority, too.

 

      All those economical powers are competing to secure the limited natural resources available including the most important, energy (oil), for their growing industries. The American allies such as the Germans, French, and Japanese do not need the American military protection anymore, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the end of the cold war in 1990, and the defeat of communism by capitalism. As those nations would like to establish or reestablish their own empires, the only cards left in the hands of the USA are its military superiority and still its largest economy, but for a short term.

 

      The American superior troops are deployed across the globe to secure the sources of the limited natural resources, and the most important of all the oil, and their transport routes. This allows the USA to control the economies of the competing industrial nations. This policy is an American declaration of its intension to protect its position as the World’s sole super power. Nuclear weapons can, also, be used to impose the American will upon the Globe, as the current President George W. Bush, has clearly announced to prolong the period of the American domination of the World. The policy of invasion and occupation is applied only against the weakest nations such as the Iraqis and Afghanis. The intimidation is not applied against nations with significant deterrents, such as North Korea with its nuclear weapons.

 

      Current and future imperialist countries are dealing with the American madness with patience and cautious, as they develop and grow their economies slowly but surely and with self-confidence, leaving the current World’s only super power to disappear slowly. Germany, France, China, Russia, Japan, and other powers have not challenged the recent American stupid military adventures, after the NATO countries have fallen into the American trap of September 11th, 2001, and contributed to the invasion of Afghanistan to please the American imperialist master.

 

      Before the Soviet Union has collapsed, a new political conservative group has emerged in Washington, the Neoconservatives, to which Roland Reagan and the current President G. W. Bush have belonged. This group has succeeded in formulating the American foreign policy for the new century, which has been published on 17 September 2002. The core of this policy is the use of the American superior military to dominate the world and its natural resources, as the USA fears the growing power of other countries with growing economies expected to replace the US as the largest economy in the next few decades.

 

      Europe imported in 2002 42% of all its oil imports from the Middle East and North Africa. This figure was 72% for Japan, 76% for the Pacific Asian countries except the US, Canada, Japan, and China, and 39% for China. This shows how the economies of those countries depend on the oil supplies from the Middle East, and to a greater extent than the US. The American control of the Middle East, the energy resources, and its routes of transportation is controlling the economies of those countries and their policies. Occupation of the Middle East is a part of the mentioned American policy, as almost all the ruling regimes are clients to the USA and its European allies, without any legitimacy from their nations. Revolutions are expected as the Islamic revolution in Iran occurred in 1979 responding to the American imperialism in that country. The American troops in Iraq and the United Arab Emirates are completely ready to invade the neighboring Arab countries to secure the oil wells.

 

      Wars are essential element of the new American imperial strategy. The invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq were not meant to be a temporary measure, but a long-term occupation, to allow the US troops to be centered in the different and important parts of the world to consolidate the American hegemony over the World. This, also, allows the American troops to exercise wars continuously, and to be always ready for new invasions and wars. American weapon systems are tested. Trillions of dollars are earned by the banks that lend the American Government to wage wars, by the military industry, by the oil companies and by the politicians with connections to those industries and businesses. American oil companies have currently exclusive access to the Iraqi and Caspian Sea oil fields. Exxon, the largest American corporation has earned 40 billion dollars last year.

 

      When the USA prepares for an invasion of a weak nation such as the Iraqis or Afghanis, it does not announce the real reasons for the invasion, but other fake ones to fool the local and international population with help of the American and allied international media. In the western fraudulent and efficient democratic world, the media plays a decisive role in deceiving the local and world population. It helps the imperialist governments to spread fake reasons and information to prepare the locals and world nations for the upcoming imperialist policies, wars, invasions, and conflicts. Note that the democratic world is most proud of its freedom of expression and freedom of press.

 

The New American Imperial Rules:

 

        During the cold war, the military and nuclear balance between the communist and capitalist worlds has prevented any direct military conflict and nuclear wars that could have destroyed the entire World many times. The decisive element of that balance was the nuclear deterrent of each block. If a super power would have launched its nuclear missiles against the other one, the attacked block had the capability to retaliate and launch its atomic missiles against the attacker. The result would have been a complete annihilation of both parties. This balance and mutual nuclear deterrent capabilities has prevented nuclear wars and direct conflicts between the super powers and maintained the world peace in general.

 

The Neoconservatives have pioneered the development of new technology “The Star Wars”. The American military satellites are supposed to shoot down any nuclear missile fired at the USA or its allies. Lots of money has been spent on research to develop such technology, although it has not yet succeeded. The aim of such aggressive policy is to disturb the world nuclear balance and stop the current nuclear powers such as Russia and China from the ability to use their nuclear deterrent against an American nuclear attack. A success of the Star War Technology would stop such nuclear powers from being able to retaliate against any American nuclear attack. This means that nothing would stop the USA from using its atomic weapons against any other nation; America will fear no retaliation. Do not forget that the USA is the only country that used necessarily atomic weapons against another non-nuclear nation (Japan) in 1945. Furthermore, the current American President has declared that he is willing to use nuclear weapons against other non-atomic nations defying American interests. The US government spends already on the Star War Technology more than it spends on its Foreign Ministry. Poland and the Czech Republic have already agreed to host the Missile Defense Shield on their territories neighboring Russia. The USA military spending ($600.00 billion a year) equals half of the world total spending on arms or the total military spending of the next 15 countries following the USA.

 

      The American new Grand Imperial Strategy seems to be leading the World to arms race and destruction. Anyhow, this strategy currently aims to invade the weakest nations without significant deterrents such as Afghanistan and Iraq. North Korea has succeeded in protecting itself from potential attacks by the Americans by developing its own nuclear deterrent. Iran would like to follow North Korea steps to protect itself from the American imperialist aggression; as the USA would like to attack Iran before it succeeds in developing its nuclear deterrent. Iran possesses the second larges oil reserves in the World. Its invasion would allow the American control of more energy sources and satisfy the American hunger for more power and imperialism, but seems to be pushing the World to more destruction and madness. The land invasion of oil resources and the threat of war against Iran have pushed the world crude oil prices to world records and the world economy to a recession.

 

      The budget deficit of the current Bush Administration has reached 9 trillion dollars ($9,000,000,000,000.00). The former administration of Bill Clinton had left a surplus of 4 trillion dollars. It seems that the Bush administration has spent over 13 trillion dollars on its wars on the illusive terror. A very few sectors of the American economy has profited from the American wars. Now, the American economy is facing recession, and the Dollar is continuing to lose its value against all other major currencies, as the current administration has concentrated only on the realization of its new Imperial Strategy and the invasion of other powerless nations. Who is going to pay the American Government debts? Is it the common American citizen, who has been deceived by the government and media to benefit just the very few Bush allies? Who is going to face poverty, unemployment and recession?

 

      A corner stone of the New American Imperial Strategy is to prevent other nations from building up its military capabilities, nuclear deterrence, and technologies. This would constitute a barrier against the complete American hegemony of the entire world. Only the USA has the right to possess nuclear weapons and the right to use them as it pleases. The role of the United Nations has diminished as the US is formulating its rules as it goes.

 

      Most the World’s nations, currently, consider the USA as the gravest external threat facing their security. The only solution to counter that threat is to own weapons of mass destruction to form a viable deterrent against any American aggression, as North Korea has achieved.

 

Freedom of Expression and Freedom of the Press (Democracy?):

 

      Many Americans support the American wars oversees, as the mass media do not inform the public about the real causes of those wars, provide false information or just parts of the truth, and support the general imperial policy. This mass media have helped the American Government to create the illusion of September 11, 2001, and brain washed the general public. Freedom of expression and freedom of the press do not inform the public about the American imperial plans of its global hegemony desires over the world’s nations and resources, and the price to be paid. Those mass media give no free information, but only information that suite the owners of the mass media and politicians’ campaign financiers. Those are the people who rule within what is called democracy, the only class that has the freedom to express themselves and enforce only their interests by all means available. They own the democratic institutions and the ruling politicians, and receive the financial rewards of their control over democracy. Those forces have convinced the American public with the illusion that their country is under threat from Moslem fundamentalists. Anyhow, there is a basis for such illusion, as the master imperialist has invaded, stole, corrupted, and terrorized Moslem nations and their lands allover the world. Therefore, the greatest homeland must be defended against the barbarians, an argument used by all imperial powers of all times. The defense starts their at the terrorists’ homelands to prevent them from reaching the imperial homeland. The public of the democratic countries are victims of their rulers’ fraud. Aggression, invasions, corruption, lies, robbery, death, and destruction are advertised as defense. The Vietnam War was defense of freedom, not aggression! For such illusive freedom, 3 million Vietnamese and 58 thousand American lives have been lost, in addition to the mutilation of hundreds of thousands or may be millions  of human beings, the destruction and the land poisoning of many countries involved in the American freedom adventure. It is not a joke that the consecutive American governments, since the end of that war, have declared that the Vietnam War as an aggression against America, which deserves compensation for the Americans. The invasion of Iraq is liberation of the Iraqis from the Butcher Saddam Hossain, who, by the way, was created, armed and financed by the Americans and their allies. On 23 March 2008, the number of American soldiers killed in Iraq has reached 4,000 and the same number of Iraqis has reached one million.

 

      The free democratic press does not inform the public that the democratic civilized western world has created Saddam Hossain and many hundreds of his peers allover the world to serve the imperial democratic western world’s interests with similar casualties as in Iraq. It does not tell that Saddam was asked by the Arab client regimes on behalf of the American government to invade Iran. He was financed by those regimes and armed by the freedom and peace loving Americans, Europeans, and Soviets.

 

      The democratic free press does not tell either that Saddam was supplied with the tools to produce the gift gas, Anthrax, (a weapon of mass destruction) to use against the Iranians and his own civil populations, the Kurds, by Donald Rumsfeld, the American Defense minister who launched the war against Saddam’s weapons of mass destruction. The war instigated by America against Iran lasted 8 years and killed over a million people and destroyed both countries. The same press does not mention that the American Government has tricked him again to invade Kuwait in 1990, to destroy him, after loosing control over him. How democratic is that?

 

      The same free press does not report that the CIA created, financed, and armed the Taliban and Al Qaida of Afghanistan to destabilize the former Soviet Union and other unfavorable regimes. It does not tell the world that invading Afghanistan is not a fight against the illusive and fake terror, but to build a pipe line to transport the oil of the Caspian Sea, which is one of the richest World oil reserves in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. The Taliban regime refused granting that right to the USA. So, America has gotten its war. It does not report, also, that the ruling class considers the American death and injuries are just a moderate investment into the future of the oil, arms and banking industries, the main and may be the only beneficiaries of the wars on terror. Do not forget the corrupt allied politicians working on behalf of those businesses.

 

      Was the invasion of Iraq not because of its arsenal of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)? Did the USA not show the whole World at the Security Counsel the proof, satellite images of the alleged production sites of the WMD? Did the invading democratic armies not find such weapons? Have the democratic Americans and their allies changed the war cause to liberation and democratization in stead of security of the free world? Have you noticed that invasion comes first, and then a reason can be found, as democracy moves ahead? The mass media covers up the real reasons for wars, and brain wash the public with false information supporting the corrupt politicians.

 

      Have you noticed the shameless declaration of the American President and many American politicians that America is morally superior because of its respect of human rights, freedoms, and dignity? At the same time, the American Government practices “Rendition”, kidnapping of civilians from allover the world and delivering them to client regimes to torture them for information on behalf of the CIA, which keeps the client regimes up dated with all torture methods available. Have you ever noticed the happiness, jokes, and playfulness of the current US President, George W. Bush, Jr., facing the media and other heads of states, as if he does not feel the burden of the dying and mutilated Americans, Afghans, and Iraqis of his oil wars, the suffering of 49 million Americans without health coverage, the continuous destruction of the environment, mainly by the US activities and leadership, the current US recession, the increase of food prices allover the World, and the suffering of most humans on Earth?

 

      The democracy theory assumes that the free press and freedom of expression are the controls of the democratic institutions, as they uncover abuses and corruption. Voting for politicians by the public is another power given to the masses over the rulers. That theory is blind for the facts that the media is not free for everyone, except the ruling elite, and that the voting public is brain washed by the same bias media. People vote according to the information made available to them, some of which are false and others are only a part of the truth. Other information is hidden to deceive the public and affect their free opinion and votes.

 

      So, if the media is not free, and there is no freedom of expression, except under the shower, is there any democracy?

 

      What about the role of money within the most precious system “democracy”? Is democracy good at all with the freedom of money to support whoever will return the favor and co-operate with the corrupt system?

 

      In many democracies, the party or candidate with the highest number of votes wins the election; this number could be as low as 29%, for example. A minority government rules over 71% of a public, who has not voted for such a government. Is this a democracy or dictatorship? In other countries, a coalition must be built among different parties to represent over 50% of the voters. In most cases 51% is legitimate. What about the 49%, who did not voted for those parties? Who represent them?

 

      In all democratic countries, there are 1-4 parties, mostly only 2, exchange ruling the populations since the establishment of the democratic system. No other independent political powers can win an election and rule. Those parties are tools of the richest and most powerful. They receive all financial support they need to win elections and to form the public opinion. In most cases supporters finance all competing parties because it does not make any difference who wins and who rules. All will do their best to please the donors.

 

      Is democracy a highly sophisticated game of corruption, in which people are fooled and think that they hold the power in their hands? Is the theory of democracy an illusion as communism has been, but much more sophisticated, so that it is still alive? Is it just a modern feudalism?

Is it the highest from of deception, as the public is the victim and supports its exploiters? Is it a legal Mafia?

 

      No doubt that the prosperity of the people within the modern western democratic countries is a decisive factor of the laziness of their minds and actions.

 

      Is that the democracy needed to be spread allover the World?

 

References:

 

Alex Callinicos: The Grand Strategy of the American Empire. 97 International Socialism Journal. 2002. http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj97/callinicos.htm

Joe Bassani (Colonel, United States Army): Saving the World for Democracy, An Historical Analysis of America’s Grand Strategy in the 21st Century. Faculty of the Joint Advance Warfighting School in partial satisfaction of the requirements of a Master of Science Degree in Joint Campaign Planning and Strategy. http://www.jfsc.ndu.edu/college_resources/JOR/Grand_Strategy/American_Grand_Strategy.pdf

John Bellamy Foster: A Warning to Africa: The New U.S. Imperial Strategy. Global Research.ca. 24 March 2008.

Noam Chomsky: Dominance and its Dilemmas. Boston Review. October 2003. http://www.chomsky.info/articles/200310–.htm

Noam Chomsky: Hegemony or Survival. America’s Quest for Global Domination. First Owl Books Edition 2004.

Noam Chomsky: Preventive War “The Supreme Crime”, Iraq:Invasion that will Live in Infamy. Le Monde Diplomatique, 11 August 2003. http://www.user.dccnet.com/welcomewoods/sunshinecoastpeacegroup/chomskymonde11.08.2003.html

Non-Aligned Movement: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-Aligned_Movement

Rodrigue Tremblay: Propaganda of Fear: Another War for Israel, Oil, and Partisan Politics? May 15 2006. TheNewAmericanEmpire.com

Sarkozy: We are stronger together http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7313570.stm

Edward S. Herman and Moam Chomsky: Manufacturing Consent, The Political Economy of the Mass Media. Vol. 26,000. Pantheon Books, New York. 1988, 2002.

Ryan McGreal The Game: Setting Up the Board. 4 March 2004. http://www3.sympatico.ca/taylormcgreal/newsletter014.html

http://www.mirror.co.uk/showbiz/2008/03/26/carla-bruni-sarkozy-angry-over-naked-picture-publication-89520-20363095/

 

 

 

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Nuclear Israel

 

Dr. Ahmed El-Meadawy

1 September 2006

 

The Holocaust:

 

During the World War II from 1939 to 1945, Nazi Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler destroyed some six million European Jews. They were put in large sealed halls, and then exposed to toxic gases. This was the cheapest way to destroy human beings. As the victims were still alive, the Nazi soldiers shaved their heads to use the hair to fill pillows and mattresses for German use. The skins were used for soap production. Nazi scientists conducted scientific experiments on some of the victims, alive. The corpses were, then, burnt in special ovens, and converted into dust to eliminate the massacres’ evidence. The victims’ properties were confiscated by the Nazi State. Not only the Jews, but also, Romany people, Slavs, intellectuals, homosexuals, and political dissidents were exterminated by the Nazi Germans.

 

As the Allies defeated the Nazi Armies, occupied Germany completely, and brought the war to an end, the Nazi plans to entirely destroy the European Jews had failed. The remaining liberated Jews returned to their homes, and found that all their relatives had been murdered, and their properties stolen. They came to the conclusion that Europe could not be a home for them anymore, and decided to immigrate to Palestine and to endure any hurdles to achieve that goal, the creation of a Jewish home land in Palestine. All expected difficulties were considered much easier than what they have already endured. At that time, the Jewish organizations were very active in organizing the immigration of the world Jews illegally to Palestine, which was under British occupation.

 

The Jewish organizations and their allies, mainly in the USA, succeeded in convincing the world powers, especially the American president Harry Truman, to use the United Nations as an instrument to divide Palestine between the native Palestinians and the immigrating Jews. As a result of the pressure the American and many European governments put on smaller countries, a decision was made by the UN on November 29th, 1947, dividing Palestine as the Jewish Organizations wanted.

 

On May 14th, 1948, Ben-Gurion (the founder and first prime-minister), declared the establishment of the state of Israel. The Israelis celebrate that date and call it their independence day, while the Palestinians mourn and call it “the catastrophe day”.

 

Nuclear Israel:

 

The idea of a nuclear Israel was born with the birth of the state of Israel. The Holocaust was the justification for any measure taken by Israel to protect its Jewish population and their new born state.

 

In 1949, Hemed Gimmel led the Israeli search for Uranium in the Negev Desert. In 1952, Ben-Gurion created Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), and hired Ernst David Bergmann, to chair it. Bergmann, the father of the Israeli Nuclear Bomb, advocated an Israeli bomb as the best way to ensure that “we shall never again be led as lambs to the slaughter.” The IAEC was put under the supervision of Shimon Peres, the Director General of the Ministry of Defense, who had convinced Ben-Gurion to pursue, and was responsible for building Israel’s nuclear capability for some thirty years under complete secrecy.

 

The French Ally:

 

France was the first to help Israel to build the atomic bomb. This co-operation continued during the 50s and 60s of the last century. France was, also, the main arms supplier to Israel during that period.

 

There had been three reasons for the French support to the Israeli Atomic Project. The first one was rewarding Israel for its invasion of Sinai during the 1956 war, as the British and French armies invaded Egypt from the Mediterranean Sea into the Suez Canal. This was to weaken Egypt which was supporting the Algerian Revolution against the French occupation. The invasion was the British answer to the nationalization of Suez Canal by the Egyptian Government. The second reason was, also, rewarding Israel for spying by the Jews in Algeria on behalf of France against the liberation movement, as the Jewish in Algeria were loyal to Israel rather than to Algeria. The third and most important motive was the embargo of certain nuclear enabling computer technology imposed by the USA to prevent France form building its own nuclear bomb according to The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Israel was able to purchase that technology and heavy water from the USA, and passed them through to France.

 

In 1956, hundreds of French technicians flooded the Negev Desert to construct the top-secret Dimona Nuclear Reactor and a plant for the nuclear bomb production underground to elude the American and Soviet spy satellites. The reactor started to function in 1964. France provided Israel with all its needs of the technology and ingredients needed for the production of the Israeli Nuclear Bomb.

 

The French and Israeli nuclear co-operation included the Israeli involvement in the preproduction design of the early Mirage jet aircraft intended to be capable of delivering nuclear bombs.

 

Promising Israeli students went overseas to study nuclear engineering and physics at the Israeli government expense. Of the Negev Nuclear Research Center’s 2,700 workers, only 150 are allowed to enter the Holy Land’s Machon 2 nuclear bomb factory that consists of 6 floors. Machon 4 is the chief laboratory where the process for extracting the uranium found in the Negev Desert has been perfected, and a new method of producing heavy water had been developed providing Israel with an indigenous capability to produce some of the most important nuclear materials.

 

The British/Norwegian Allies:

 

In 1959 and 1960, Britain sold 20 tons of heavy water to Israel. In the 1950s and 1960s, Britain made hundreds of secret shipments of restricted materials to Israel including Uranium 235 in 1959 and plutonium in 1966. The transactions were made through a Norwegian front company called Noratom which took a 2% commission on the transactions.

 

Israeli Nuclear Arsenal:

 

In 1986, The Sunday Times, published in London (Britain), information provided by Mordechai Vanunu, an Israeli of Moroccan origin and a former employee with the Negev Nuclear Research Center. Experts used that information to estimate the size of the Israeli nuclear arsenal. It is believed that Israel was capable of producing 40 kg of plutonium annually, and atomic bombs with as little as 4 kg of plutonium for each one. That amount of plutonium was enough to produce 10-12 nuclear bombs a year. It is estimated that Israel owns 200-500 atomic bombs with boosted devices, neutron bombs, F-16 deliverable warheads, and Jericho warheads. Experts believe, as well, that Israel’s nuclear arsenal equals each of the British and French arsenals in quantity and quality, but they disagree whether it is the fifth or the sixth nuclear power in the world. The Israeli nuclear arsenal is thought to be of offensive nature and designed to be employed under the Middle East conditions. Israel, also, owns miniaturized thermonuclear bombs designed to maximize deadly gamma radiation while minimizing blast effects and long term radiation, in essence designed to kill people while leaving property intact. This would be useful for Israeli future expansions. Israel might possess 20 hydrogen bombs. A hydrogen bomb is a boosted, 100-1000-times stronger nuclear bomb than a regular one. This bomb produces immense heat and a shock wave that affects an extensive area, and despite this, it produces a smaller amount of fallout and radioactive contamination.

 

Israeli Nuclear Delivery Capabilities:

 

Israel uses short range Jericho I and medium range Jericho II missiles to carry the nuclear heads to their targets. Those missiles are hidden in underground bunkers spread all around Israel. It, also, has American made Harpoon and Cruise missiles capable of carrying nuclear heads and hitting targets 1,500 kilometers away.

 

In 1988, Israel began launching several Ofek satellites into orbit atop Shavit (Comet) three-stage rockets, which are derived from the Jericho II missile. The first satellite weighed about 180 kilograms; the most recent, the Ofek 5, about 300 kilograms. The satellites monitor activities in hostile states and provide intelligence. The Shavit could be converted into a long-range ballistic missile, with a range of up to 7,000 kilometers, depending on the weight of the warhead.

 

Israel has modified American-supplied cruise missiles to carry nuclear warheads on submarines, giving the Middle East’s only nuclear power the ability to launch atomic weapons from land, air and beneath the sea. Israel possesses hundreds of nuclear artillery shells, land mines, and low radiating neutron bombs.

 

In addition, Israel possesses American jets capable of carrying and delivering the nuclear heads including F-4 Phantom, F-15E, F-16, and A-4 Skyhawks. The F-16 has been the backbone of the Israeli Air Force and is the most likely candidate for air delivery of nuclear weapons. From 1980 to 1995, Israel bought or received 260 F-16s from the United States: 103 F-16As, 22 F-16Bs, 81 F-16Cs, and 54 F-16Ds. In 1999, the Israeli government announced it would buy 50 F-16Is, at a cost of about $2.5 billion. Israel will receive the aircrafts over a two-year period beginning in early 2003. Under this contract, Israel has the option to purchase 60 additional aircraft. If it does, delivery would continue through 2008.

 

The American Ally:

 

The United States first became aware of Dimona’s existence after U-2 overflights in 1958 captured the facility’s construction, but it was not identified as a nuclear site until two years later. The complex was variously explained as a textile plant, an agricultural station, and a metallurgical research facility, until David Ben-Gurion stated in December 1960 that Dimona complex was a nuclear research center built for “peaceful purposes.” As early as 8 December 1960, the CIA issued a report outlining Dimona’s implications for nuclear proliferation, and the CIA station in Tel Aviv had determined by the mid-1960s that the Israeli nuclear weapons program was an established and irreversible fact.

 

Richard Nixon and his chief foreign policy adviser Henry Kissinger privately endorsed Israel’s program and reached a secret understanding with the Israelis in 1969 that allowed them to pursue their nuclear program as long as they maintained a policy of deliberate ambiguity. Nixon in a meeting with the former Labor Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir pressed Israel to “make no visible introduction of nuclear weapons or undertake a nuclear test program”. His administration went to great lengths to keep nuclear issues out of any talks on the Middle East. Information on Israeli nuclear capabilities was routinely suppressed. The United States even supplied Israel with krytrons (nuclear triggers) and supercomputers that were bound for the Israeli nuclear program.

 

Top officials in the Reagan administration made a conscious effort to keep information on Israel’s nuclear capability from State Department officials and others who might have had concerns over nuclear proliferation issues.

 

The senior Bush administration sold at least 1,500 nuclear “dual-use” items to Israel, according to a report by the General Accounting Office, despite requirements under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty that the existing nuclear powers like the United States not help another country’s nuclear weapons program “in any way.”

 

The Israeli media reported that President Clinton wrote the rightist Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu in 1998 pledging that the United States would continue to protect Israel’s nuclear program from international pressure. According to Haaretz, “the United States will preserve Israel’s strategic deterrence capabilities and ensure that Middle East arms control initiatives will not damage it in the future. The Clinton letter provided written – if secret – backup to the long-standing agreement between Jerusalem and Washington over the preservation of Israel’s nuclear capabilities, if Israel maintains its policy of ‘ambiguity’ and does not announce publicly that it has the bomb.”

 

Meanwhile, Congress has for many years made it clear to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other responsible parties that it did not want to have anything revealed in an open hearing related to Israel’s nuclear capability. A major reason is that there are a number of laws that severely restrict US military and technical assistance to countries that develop nuclear weapons. Israel is the largest recipient of US arms exports, which are highly profitable for the politically influential arms industry.

 

In addition, given the enormous costs of any nuclear program of such magnitude, it would have been very difficult for Israel to develop such a large and advanced arsenal without the tens of billions of dollars in unrestricted American financial support. More than simply employing a double standard of threatening perceived enemies for developing nuclear weapons while tolerating development of such weapons by its allies, the United States has, in effect, subsidized nuclear proliferation in the Middle East.

 

What both Republican and Democratic leaders have failed to observe, however, is that Israel remains in violation of UN Security Council resolution 487, which calls on Israel to place its facilities at Dimona under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) trusteeship. Despite bipartisan efforts in Congress to seek repeal of that resolution, it is still legally binding. Bush and Kerry, however, believe that UN Security Council resolutions, like nuclear nonproliferation, do not apply to US allies.

 

Furthermore, while one could make a case for an Israeli nuclear deterrent up through the mid-1970s, Israel’s qualitative advantage in conventional forces relative to any combination of Arab states developed subsequently – resulting in large part from a phenomenal amount of taxpayer-funded arms transfers from the United States – would appear to weaken the case for a nuclear weapons development. Furthermore, Israel has an extensive biological and chemical weapons program that far surpasses those of any potential hostile powers and – combined with vastly superior delivery systems – would constitute a more-than-adequate deterrent

 

Like Israel, the United States has acknowledged its willingness to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear adversaries.

 

The German Nuclear Submarines:

 

At the end of the 1990s, the Jewish state, with a coastline of 270 kilometers, acquired three German-built diesel-powered Dolphin-class submarines equipped with American-made Harpoon missiles modified to carry small nuclear warheads. The submarines were produced by the German companies Thyssen Nordseewerke in Emden and Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft in Kiel. Israel has succeeded in modifying U.S.-made Cruise missiles, capable of carrying nuclear warheads, to be launched from those submarines. With its three submarines, Israel could deploy one nuclear-armed submarine at sea at all times. The most invulnerable types of nuclear-armed sea-based systems traditionally have been submarines. The first submarine, the Dolphin, arrived in Haifa on July 27, 1999. The Leviathan joined the fleet before the end of 1999, and the third boat, the Tekumah, was delivered in July 2000. The cost of each submarine is estimated at $300 million.

 

Israeli Nuclear Readiness:

 

It is believed that Israel was able in 1966 to produce enough plutonium that allowed the assembly of 2 atomic bombs before the 1967 6-days war, during which Israel declared its first nuclear alert. The two bombs were available for use in case of an Israeli defeat.

 

The second Israeli nuclear alert was during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. It is reported that, fearing defeat, the Israelis assembled 13 twenty-kiloton atomic bombs, deployed, and considered using them. The Arabs may have limited their war aims because of their knowledge of the Israeli nuclear weapons. During that war, Israel used nuclear blackmail to force Kissinger and Nixon to airlift massive amounts of military hardware to Israel.

 

Israel entered the third nuclear alert during the Golf War started on January 18th, 1991 for the 43 days of the war, during which Saddam Hussein launched 40 Scud Missiles in 17 attacks at Israel, none of which caused any significant damage.

 

Israeli Nuclear Strategy:

 

The Israeli government refuses to officially confirm or deny that it has a nuclear weapon program, and has an unofficial but rigidly enforced policy of deliberate ambiguity supported by the United States. Both countries consider Israel a non nuclear state, when preventing other Middle East, Arab or Moslem nations from developing nuclear weapons. On the other hand, the nuclear Israeli threat is used to impose Israeli terms on those countries.

 

It is believed that Israel possesses all kinds known of weapons of mass destruction, chemical, biological, and nuclear. This is a foundation on which the Israeli grand strategy rests to protect its expansion policy and to force the neighboring Arab states to sign peace agreements without the return of all occupied territories. It is also used to protect the so called Arabic moderate regimes against internal instabilities. Munya Mardoch, Director of the Israeli Institute for the Development of Weaponry, said in 1994, “The moral and political meaning of nuclear weapons is that states which renounce their use are acquiescing to the status of Vassal states. All those states which feel satisfied with possessing conventional weapons alone are fated to become vassal states.

 

To enable Israel to abstain from dependence on nuclear arms, the United States has been providing Israel with $2 to 3 billion per year in U.S. aid. Since then Israel’s nuclear arsenal has expanded exponentially, both quantitatively and qualitatively, while the U.S. money spigots remain wide open.

 

The superior Israeli arsenal of weapons of mass destruction confines its interest in peace in the Middle East to only one option of dictating its own terms. Shimon Peres, former Israeli prime minister, leader of the Israeli Labor Party, Ben-Gurion’s aid, and responsible for the development of the Israeli nuclear arsenal for some 30 years, said that the Israeli nuclear power was the reason for Anwar Sadaat, former Egyptian president, to visit Jerusalem searching for peace. This comment implies that the Arab nations have no choice but to resign to the overwhelming Israeli nuclear force.

 

Israel intends to destroy any Arab or Moslem nuclear project, as it had bombed the Iraqi nuclear reactor in Osirak on 7 June 1981. In 1983, the former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon proposed to India that it join with Israel to attack Pakistani nuclear facilities.

 

Within Israel, however, there was much debate among Israeli elites regarding the wisdom of developing nuclear weapons. Some Israeli leaders – ranging from former Labor Prime Ministers Golda Meir and Yigal Allon to former Likud Defense Minister Raful Eitan – argued that a nuclear Israel would increase the possibility of Arab states developing weapons of mass destruction and launching a first strike against Israel. Given the country’s small size, Israel might not have a credible second-strike capability. There is also the fact that most of Israel’s potential nuclear targets are close enough so that a shift in wind could potentially send a radioactive cloud over Israel.

 

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Hersh, op. cit., 230-231.

Hersh, op. cit., 271-275.

Hersh, op. cit., 291.

Hersh, op. cit., 319.

Hersh, op. cit., 321-235.

Hersh, op. cit., p. 19

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Hersh, op.cit., 1991, p. 319

Hersh, op.cit., p. 319

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ibid, p. 153

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Ibid., 230, 243.

Ibid., 234.

Ibid., 234-235 and Aronson, S, op. cit., 15-18.

Ibid., 262-263.

Ibid., 273-274.

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Israel and the Bomb Avner Cohen has provides a detailed account of of the political aspects of Israel’s nuclear history that draws on thousands of American and Israeli government documents-most of them recently declassified and never before cited-and more than one hundred interviews with key individuals who played important roles in this story.

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Milhollin, 100-119.

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Milhollin, op. cit., 103-104.

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